Carnelian is an Onyx, a layer stone with a red base and an upper white layer. It can be either opaque or translucent, or a combination of both as shown in the stones Miriam uses. It may be best known for its wide use (along with Lapis Lazuli) in ancient Egyptian jewelry, and with Turquoise in Native American jewelry. Most Carnelians are heat-treated to bring out Mother Nature's most beautiful natural colors and translucent qualities. In some of her Carnelian necklaces, Miriam added Red Botswana Agate, which shows bands of red, orange, brown and white, and Fire (Cosmic) Agate which has a distinctive spotted pattern of colorations. (Some faceted Cosmic Agates have been coated with a white man-made substance that, when heated, provides a permanent "crackled" look to the facets.) Metaphysical essence: Decision-making, empowerment, confidence, and self-esteem.